A Comparative Study to Assess the Nutritional Status of Urban and Rural Pre-school Children
Young Nurses Journal of Research. October 2021, 1(1), 08-13
M Justin Jaspher
Professor, St. Mary's College of Nursing-Lucknow
View PDF | View Full Article
Background of the Study: Stunting, wasting, and underweight are the important nutritional status indicators for children. “While stunting is caused by long-term insufficient nutrient intake and repeated infections, wasting is a result of acute food shortage and illness. Wasting, on the other hand, is a strong predictor of mortality and requires urgent response. Underweight combines information about linear growth obstruction and weight for length/height” . Understanding differences in the determinants of childhood malnutrition between urban and rural areas is important to design appropriate, relevant program and policy implementation. Aims & Objectives: The aim of the study is to assess and compare the prevalence of underweight, stunting and wasting among pre-school children in rural and urban area.
Methodology: Convenient random sampling technique was used to gather data in 100 samples, 50 each from rural and urban population. Data was collected by using structured interview and anthropometric assessment. The questionnaire consisted of two parts, i.e., demographic data and questions regarding anthropometric assessment, age, height, weight etc. The three nutritional status indicators, HAZ - z-score for height-for-age, (Stunting), WAZ - z-score for weight for age (Underweight), WHZ- z – score weight for height (Wasting) were calculated using WHO Anthro survey application.
Results: This study revealed that Prevalence of acute malnutrition (stunting) among rural pre-school children is 28% which was higher than the prevalence of acute malnutrition in urban pre-school children which was only 18 %. Prevalence of Underweight among rural pre-school children is 36% which was higher than the prevalence of underweight in urban pre-school children which was only 34 %. Prevalence of chronic malnutrition (wasting) among rural pre-school children is 32% which was lower than the prevalence of chronic malnutrition in urban pre-school children in which it was 46%. There is no significant association between the nutritional status of the rural and urban pre-school children with the selected demographic variables. This indicates even though there was a significant difference between the rural and urban pre-school children, both group of children are at the risk of one or other malnutrition related problems.
Conclusion: This study suggests that even though there was a significant difference between the rural and urban pre-school children, both group of children are at the risk of one or other malnutrition problem.
Keywords: Malnutrition, Preschool Children, Stunting, Overnutrition, Wasting
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
- National Institute of Urban Affairs. Status of children in urban India a baseline study -2016.Available from: Smartnet
- Caulfield LE, Richard SA, Rivera JA, et al. Stunting, Wasting, and Micronutrient Deficiency Disorders. In: Jamison DT, Breman JG, Measham AR, et al., editors. Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries. 2nd edition. Washington (DC): The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank; 2006. Chapter 28. Available from: NCBI Co-published by Oxford University Press, New York.
- Mitra M, Tiwari A, Ghosh R, Bharati P. Dimensions and causes of Child Malnutrition: A study of Preschool Children of Raipur, Chattisgarh, India. Anthropologist.2004; 6: 247-252.
- The Wire: Child Nutrition Levels in India Worsened Over Last Five Years, NHFS Survey. Available at Thewire
- India State-Level Disease Burden Initiative Malnutrition Collaborators (2019). The burden of child and maternal malnutrition and trends in its indicators in the states of India: The Global Burden of Disease Study 1990-2017. The Lancet. Child & adolescent health, 3(12), 855–870. Crossref
- Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. National Health Family Survey 4 (2015-2016). Available from: RCHIIPS [Last accessed on 2017 Dec 03]
- World Health Organization. Global Database on Child Growth and Malnutrition: Descriptions. Available from: WHO. [Last accessed on 2017 Dec 05]
- United Nations Children’s Fund WHO, World Bank Group. Levels and Trends in Child Malnutrition-UNICEF/WHO/World Bank Group Joint Child Malnutrition Estimates. In: UNICEF/WHO/World Bank Group New York, NY; 2017.
- Gopal Chandra Mandal1 and Kaushik Bose in under nutrition among the rural pre-school children of Aram bag, Hoogly district, west Bengal, International Journal of Current Research Vol. 10, pp.007-011, November, 2010
- Wang, Y., & Chen, H. J.Use of percentiles and z-scores in anthropometry. In Handbook of anthropometry (pp. 29-48). Springer New York.
- Public Health Notes; Z- scores and its classification; Available at Z-Score and its Classification - Public Health Notes
- Waghode, R., Jaste, P. and B Ghooi, R., 2021. Comparative Study of Nutritional Status of Preschool Children of Rural Area and Urban Slum. Indian Journal of Public Health Research and Development, 8(4), p.628.
- Roopadevi V, Karinagannanavar A. Nutritional status assessment of under five children in urban field practice area of Mysore. J Prev Med Holist Health 2016; 2:1‑3.
- George PS, Murthy MR. Prevalence of undernutrition among preschool children (3–6 years) attending anganwadi centers in urban Mysuru. Indian J Med Spec 2021; 12:127-31.
- Surwade JB, Mantri SB, Wadagale A V. Utilization of ICDS Scheme in Urban and Rural Area of Latur District with Special Reference to Pediatric Beneficiaries Introduction: 2013;5(3): 107–10
- Mitra S. A study of dietary intake and nutritional status of under five children in slums of Kolkata city. Indian J Community Med [Internet]. 2007 Jan 1;32(1):92.
- Gurjinder K, A Comparative Study to Assess Nutritional Status of Preschool Children in Selected Rural and Urban Areas, with a View to Develop Pamphlet Regarding Recommended Daily Allowance; International Journal of Nursing Critical Care:2019; Vol 5, No 1